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Hotspots - Drs. The locations of these regions are highly conserved among mammalian species and are enriched in genes crucial for the regulation of developmental processes.

They characterize heretofore-undescribed transcripts, including two novel classes; they provide insights into the genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of non-coding RNAs; and they underscore the importance of non-coding RNAs in nematode development. Special Offers Classic Titles on Sale. Obesity-related diseases including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cancer are a leading cause of preventable death. An important resource for any model organism is a near-complete reference genome from which a multitude of scientific questions can be answered. But these are precisely the clinical insights that their most recent study has yielded.

Growing deeper roots where the soil is dry. Its extinction would appear inevitable, but the development of advanced cell and reproductive technologies such as cloning by nuclear transfer and the artificial production of gametes via stem cells differentiation offer a second chance for its survival.

Blocking them might be a new anticancer strategy for stopping telomerase, the enzyme that immortalizes tumors. The results help illuminate how cells acquire distinct functions as the embryo matures. Which genes are critical to cognitive development? In humans as well as in the fruit fly Drosophila females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one copy of the much smaller Y chromosome.

The latter carries very few genes, while the X chromosome has thousands of genes. If male flies fail to compensate, they die! Now scientists are finding new details on how disruption of this timing may contribute to male infertility or congenital illness. However, treated tumors frequently become resistant to therapy, prompting the search for new ways to block receptor function.

This is seemingly incompatible with the importance of gene expression. But zebrafish embryos don't seem to care much about noisy transcription; they just wait until the effects of noise fade, and live happily ever after. The map reveals a unique characteristic of the bacteria that could become the target of future drug development. Now, a group that includes University of Florida Health genetics researchers has identified the fundamental mechanism that causes congenital myotonic dystrophy. UNC scientists show how DNA is accessed and used during the journey to maturation in fruit flies, and what this might mean to our understanding of how cancers arise.

How do human cells repair a broken zipper of DNA?

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Toyoaki Natsume and Prof. Ian D. The laboratory of Prof. Cejka and colleagues describe the function of one of the proteins that is involved in the initial DNA end processing. They found extensive variation among isolates during chronic lung infection as well as changes in clinically relevant bacterial phenotypes.

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Adding extra copies of this gene resulted in a massive boost to recombination and diversity in plant offspring. This finding could enable plant breeders to unlock crop variation, improve harvests and help ensure future food security. However, it is not always clear how such gains in knowledge will translate into improved strategies for the fight against malaria. Kyoto University uncovers a genetic key to self-renewal of reproductive cells.

The results suggest why all conceivable somatic cells can develop from the germ cells. The study has been published in the journal 'Genes and Development'. One tweak to a small enhancer sequence gave the gene a new domain of expression in the leaf. Paradoxically, the other tweak suboptimised its function in this new domain.

But together, these changes gave rise to fit plants with complex leaves. LMU researchers have demonstrated how deregulation of an epigenetic mechanism that is active only in the early phases of neurogenesis triggers the subsequent death of neural cells. Salk scientists identify the cell nucleus as a driver of gene expression and, sometimes, disease.

Neuron-type specific miRNA represses two broadly expressed genes to modulate an avoidance behavior in C. Studies using fission yeast were instrumental in identifying fundamental mechanisms that govern cell division, differentiation, and epigenetics, to name but a few. However, the use of these lifesaving drugs rapidly led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which have become increasingly difficult and expensive to eradicate. A microRNA program in the C.

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Whereas intraductal injection of Cas9-encoding lentiviruses induced Cas9-specific immune responses and development of tumors that did not resemble ILC, lentiviral delivery of a Pten targeting sgRNA in mice with mammary gland-specific loss of E-cadherin and expression of Cas9 efficiently induced ILC development. In this study we have identified Rspo3 as a gene that maintains adrenal function throughout life by controlling functional specification of cells within the adrenal and ensuring cell renewal of damaged cells.

They rapidly evolve, constantly changing their genetic architecture through horizontal DNA transfer and other mechanisms. Consequently, it can be difficult to define individual species and determine how they are related. From the egg to adult, the various organs, tissues, cells, and subcellular structures that make up an organism achieve appropriate sizes so that they effectively fit and function together.

The misregulation of this growth can lead to diseases such as cancer. This virus can cause serious liver damage and cancer in chronically infected patients.

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However, intellectual property law reforms have not kept pace with the rapid advances in genomics, synthetic biology, and stem cell research. Hereditary, physiologic, or environmental factors can lead to various retinal disorders and may cause blindness. The recent application of molecular genetic techniques to retinal disorders has led to remarkable advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these conditions.

It is a generic rather than pathogen-specific response that recruits immune cells, promotes inflammation, and mobilizes the adaptive immune system. Excessive or chronic inflammation may cause tissue damage, so a careful balance is required to restore homeostasis. But a range of genetic and environmental factors can lead to its failure.

Inherited mutations give rise to congenital heart disease, the most common birth defect, and abnormalities of the adult heart are a leading cause of illness and death in industrialized countries. It offers protection and insulation, prevents dehydration, and senses the environment. These include hormones, growth factors, morphogens, and environmental stress, as well as signals from internal regulators and checkpoints. A complex network of signal transduction pathways within the cell ensures that these signals are relayed to the correct molecular targets and that the cell responds appropriately.

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Their cells possess membrane-bound organelles including a nucleus and mitochondria, distinct cytoskeletal features, and a unique chromosome structure that permits them to undergo mitosis or meiosis. The emergence of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic ancestors about 2 billion years ago was a pivotal evolutionary transition in the history of life on Earth.

But the change was abrupt, and few clues exist as to the nature of the intermediate stages. Robert Horvitz, Ph. The book is an essential resource for academic scientists and physicians considering consulting work in biomedicine. This fundamental process of "cellular ingestion" is required for diverse activities such as nutrient uptake, cell adhesion and migration, signal transduction, cytokinesis, neurotransmission, and antigen presentation.

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In recent years, the questions have become more refined, and mouse models are increasingly being used to develop and test cancer therapeutics. Thus, the need for more sophisticated and clinically relevant mouse models has grown, as has the need for innovative tools to analyze and validate them. In addition, the normal process of DNA replication is prone to error and may introduce mutations that can be passed to daughter cells. If left unrepaired, these DNA lesions can have serious consequences, such as cancer.

Neurotransmitter molecules released from the presynaptic terminal of one neuron diffuse to the postsynaptic terminal on the other, binding to receptors that lead to propagation or modulation of the signal.

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Bioinformatics methods to support DNA sequencing have become a critical bottleneck for many researchers and organizations wishing to make use of NGS technology. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential. Molecular Cloning, Fourth Edition, preserves the highly praised detail and clarity of previous editions and includes specific chapters and protocols commissioned for the book from expert practitioners at Yale, U Mass, Rockefeller University, Texas Tech, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University, and other leading institutions.

Misra et al. As described in a new book from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, The Mammary Gland as an Experimental Model, this organ also represents an excellent model system for investigation of physiological and pathological processes that occur throughout the body. August 15, - Studies of mammary gland biology are essential in the fight against breast cancer. While its study has captivated the current generation of molecular biologists, many do not know the historical underpinnings of the field.

The fission and fusion of lipid membranes underlies the majority of protein trafficking in cells. In another paper, years after mitotic chromosomes were first described by Walther Flemming, Shintomi and Hirano finally reveal what determines their shape. In a study published online today in Genome Research www. In another paper, Kang et al. June 13, - Neuroscientists have long pioneered the use of new visualization techniques. Imaging in Neuroscience: A Laboratory Manual continues that tradition by presenting an outstanding collection of methods for visualizing the nervous system.

It is the third volume in a series of imaging manuals published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

But the term has also achieved a powerful presence in popular culture, to describe a process by which individuals gain exceptional, often malign, characteristics. Although a private man, he began a blog to keep family and friends current on his progress, and found a wider audience. May 11, "Metabolism is Not Boring!

On the contrary, the ways in which cells obtain energy, use external nutrients, and assemble the building blocks of macromolecules are crucial for life. And the basics of these processes - intermediary metabolism - are similar from the single-celled to multicellular organisms. Its behavior involves processes internal to the animal - genetics, neurobiology, and physiology - as well as those external to it - environment and social surroundings.

Unlike the genome, which is essentially identical in the somatic cells of a given organism, the proteome varies in different cells, and there is no self-replicating amplification mechanism for proteins such as the polymerase chain reaction PCR for DNA. Because of this, methods that extract, separate, detect and identify proteins from extremely small samples are needed. Volume 21 , Issue 3 May Pages Related Information.