Nomenclature Aspergillus Penicillium Talaromyces. Important papers published by the Commission: Kozakiewicz, Z. Hawksworth, D. Samson, R. Proposal for nomina specifica conservanda and rejicienda in Aspergillus and Penicillium. Taxon Pitt, J. Samson Regnum Vegetabile Approaches to Penicillium and Aspergillus systematics.
Differentiation of Penicillium glabrum from Penicillium spinulosum and other closely related species: an integrated taxonomic approach. Samson R. At present Aspergillus comprises species Samson et al. Individual exometabolites produced by important genera of filamentous fungi ranked according to highest number of exometabolites reported according to AntiBase. Species of Aspergillus , Penicillium, and Talaromyces are extraordinarily productive concerning exometabolites.
The number of exometabolites pr species is 5. These number per species are clearly underestimates as some exometabolites are produced by more than one species in a genus, in addition to the fact that many species have not been examined and that some exometabolites are only expressed under unique circumstances and thus may remain undetected Sanchez et al. Light, pH, redox potential, temperature, water activity, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, iron starvation, and exometabolites from other species can all have a regulatory effect on the regulatory proteins for exometabolite expression in a fungus Brakhage, A majority of the exometabolites produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus are only found sporadically in other genera, but a large number of exometabolites are in common between Aspergillus and Penicillium.
On the other hand exometabolites from Talaromyces are nearly all unique to that genus Samson et al. The same exometabolite may be produced by widely different species. For example aflatoxin is produced by the species listed in Aspergillus section Flavi 15 spp.
Three species in Aspergillus section Flavi and all the seven species outside section Flavi listed above only produce aflatoxins of the B type. It is surprising that aflatoxins have never been found in Penicillium , but they have been found in the unrelated scale insect fungi Aschersonia coffea and Aschersonia marginata Kornsakulkarn et al. However, the precursor sterigmatocystin, although end-product for some species, has been found in a large number of unrelated genera Rank et al.
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Fungal species are specifically associated to certain habitats or few plant, animal, or other kind of organisms Filtenborg et al. For example P. Thus the specificity in both association of fungal species to other species and the profile of exometabolites are factors that have boosted the evolution of so many exometabolites. Dichotomomyces cejpii was transferred to A. While gliotoxin, tryptoquivalones, and xanthocillins Frisvad et al. Furthermore, by using several media a more full profile of these exometabolites could be revealed.
The idea that one strain can produce several exometabolites was already introduced by Frisvad and Frisvad and Filtenborg , These authors showed that terverticillate penicillia produced a unique profile of different exometabolites and also that certain media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate CYA agar and yeast extract sucrose YES agar were very efficient for production of a large number of different exometabolites, while further media may increase the number of exometabolites expressed Bills et al.
Furthermore they showed that these profiles of exometabolites were species specific and consistent from isolate to isolate, i. One of the original terms for exometabolites or secondary metabolites was idiolites, the latter indicating that production of exometabolites was strain specific, however, exometabolite profiles are clearly species specific Frisvad et al.
However, a single mutation in a gene in an exometabolite gene-cluster will often be sufficient for loss of phenotypic expression Susca et al. The ability to produce mycophenolic acid in P.
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Raper and Thom mentioned a strain of P. They also mentioned that their strain had the cultural appearance of both P. We have re-examined this strain, and indeed it had characters of both species, and appeared to be a rare hybrid. However, exometabolites from co-occurring species from the same habitat may stimulate the epigenome by acting as inhibitors of histone acetylation or methylation, and this exometabolite stimulation will be one of many ways of having silent exometabolite gene clusters in filamentous fungi expressed Bertrand et al.
It was recently shown that A. Whether this stimulation is caused by extrolites from those whole fruits or rice or from a physical stimulation is not yet known. Furthermore variations in the growth medium and ecophysiological factors such as pH, temperature, and water activity will obviously also stimulate expression of gene clusters of exometabolites that were initially thought to be silent.
In conclusion Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces contain species that produce a very large number of species-specific exometabolites with a high degree of chemoconsistency. The chemodiversity of the many species in these three genera is extremely high and many more bioactive compounds from the species will be found in the future.
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Front Microbiol. Published online Jan Prepublished online Dec 5.
Jens C. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Microbial Physiology and Metabolism, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology. Received Nov 9; Accepted Dec The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Aspergillus , Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites exometabolites. Keywords: Aspergillus , Penicillium , Talaromyces , secondary metabolites, chemodiversity, chemoconsistency. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Individual exometabolites produced by important genera of filamentous fungi ranked according to highest number of exometabolites reported according to AntiBase.
Species of Penicillium listed were revised to Talaromyces if they belonged there Yilmaz et al. Conflict of Interest Statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Genome Res. Sexual reproduction cycle in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus terreus.
Integration of Modern Taxonomic Methods for Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification
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Fungal origins of the bicyclo[2.