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Handbook of Industrial Polyethylene and Technology | Wiley Online Books
Click here. Fast, FREE delivery, video streaming, music, and much more. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. All these plastics products are made from the essential polymer mixed with a complex blend of materials known collectively as additives.
Handbook of plastic films
Without additives, plastics would not work, but with them they can be made safer, cleaner, tougher and more colourful. Additives cost money, of course, but by reducing production costs and making products last longer, they help us to save money and conserve the world's precious raw material reserves. In fact, our world today would be a lot less safe, a lot more expensive and a great deal duller without the additives that turn basic polymers in to useful plastics.
One way to improve the performance characteristics of plastic products is to compound resins with additives and fillers. Additives help fight against factors such as heat, chemicals or light. Below are some of the most common ones used in manufacturing: Antioxidants: Used to control the degradation of products due to exposure to air. Antistatics: Used to minimize static electricity. These types of additives can be mixed with the resin or applied to the surface of the product. Antistatic additives are common to a wide variety of products ranging from cosmetics to industrial goods to sensitive electronic parts.
Electrostatic Induction: Used for the economical and even application of polyurethane paints to consumer goods such as automobiles, bicycles and others. Fibers: Used to increase strength and stiffness. The most common type of fibers added for strength would be carbon and glass. Glass-reinforced plastic is more commonly known and marketed as fiberglass. Conductive fibers: Used to provide special properties for certain applications. Since there is no bulktransport due to the absence of mixing, the mass transfer takes place only by moleculardiffusion.
This can be the case with a viscous liquid such as honey contained in a plasticjar. In addition to the initial conditions of Eq. Plastics in Packaging Chapter Eleven Equation The linear portion ofFig. Contaminant transferred from a coextruded recycled polymer and a virgin resinlayer. The migration of contaminants from a package made of a single-layered recycledpolymer is described by Eq.
Consider now themigration from a layer of recycled polymer coextruded with a layer of virgin resin of thesame polymer as illustrated in Fig. The migrating substances must diffuse out from the recycled layer andthrough the virgin resin layer to reach the food contacting phase. It is further assumed thatthere is no direct diffusion from the recycled layer into the opposite side.
The followingtwo solutions have been proposed: 1. Lag-time approach. Here, the virgin polymer layer is considered to be a membrane having a constant contaminant concentration cop at the recycled polymer interphase and zero contacting phase. The corresponding solution is Eq. Reprinted with permission from R. For comparison, Eq.
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Continued diffusion approach. This approach considers that the contaminant continu- ously diffuses through the recycled and virgin resin layers with the corresponding de- crease in concentration at the interphase. This corresponds to 8 percent of theoriginal amount of migrant in the polymer.
Reprinted withpermission from S.
Laoubi et al. Foodstuffs packaged in polymeric containers such asthe one depicted in Fig. The penetration of the sor-bate takes place on only one side of the polymer and on the icnopsi. Plastics in Packaging Plastics in Packaging Sorption from both sides. Similarly, for short times, Eq. Sorption from a stirred solution of limited volume. The boundary condition contemplates that all sorbate lost by the liquid is taken up bythe polymer.
In any closed system like a TetraPak carton that has reached this condition, there is no effective mass transfer between thepolymer and the surrounding phases; the adjuvant concentrations are at equilibrium, andthe transferred material is at the maximum possible amount. In reference to Fig. Plastics in Packaging Plastics in Packaging where the s and m superscripts at the right of c refer to a sorption and migration process, respectively. Figures References 1. Plastics in Packaging Chapter Eleven 3.
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Woodward, A. Birley, A. Haworth, and J. Peterlin, A.
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Van Krevelen, D. Brandrup, J. Immergut, and E. Grulke, Eds. Wunderlich, B. Cheng, and K. Rosato, D.
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