These extraterritorial rights lasted until The treaty represented an American challenge to British dominance. China mades similar treaties with Japan and the Western powers in order to block a British takeover of the Chinese market. The opportunities for fast steamship travel from San Francisco improve dramatically in the second half of the 19th century. The first regular steamship route carried passengers, freight and mail to Yokohama in The transcontinental railroad opened in and service was expanded to China and the South Pacific. The US Post Office subsidized it to carry the mail.
Only one line of steamers connected the U. The trip to Yokohama took 22 days in , and only 12 days in , In the rates for passenger and freight continued to fall. British Protestant churches took the lead in establishing a missionary role in China, especially with the China Inland Mission.
The American program was smaller, but it had a certain impact on China, and even more so on the United States. Local government officials, all steeped in Confucianism, took a hostile view of Christianity, so converts were few and from the social fringe. Much more important was the impact on medicine and education. Peter Parker — in Canton Guangzhou was the most influential American missionary doctor. He established a medical school and prepared textbooks and journal articles to introduce Western medicine in depth.
By , British and American missionaries operated church hospitals, with 21, beds, as well as small clinics. American missionaries had an audience at home who listen closely to their first-hand accounts.
Around there were on average about China missionaries on furlough back home, and they presented their case to church groups perhaps 30, times a year, reaching several million churchgoers. They were suffused with optimism that sooner or later China would be converted to Christianity.
By the s, however, the mainline Protestant churches realize that conversions were not happening, despite all the schools and hospitals. Furthermore, they had come to appreciate the ethical and cultural values of a different civilization, and began to doubt their own superiority.
The mainline Protestant denomination missionary work declined rapidly. Furthermore, there was an influx of fundamentalist, Pentecostal and Jehovah Witness missionaries who remained committed to the conversion process.
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Novelist Pearl S. Buck — was raised in a bilingual environment in China by her missionary parents. China was the setting for many of her best-selling novels and stories, which explored the hardships, and the depth of humanity of the people she loved, and considered fully equal.
After college in the United States, she returned to China as a Presbyterian missionary to She taught English at the college level.
The Good Earth was her best-selling novel, and a popular movie. Along with numerous other books and articles she reached a large middle-class American audience with a highly sympathetic view of China. No one had more influence on American political thinking about foreign policy than Henry R. He was born to missionary parents in China, and educated there until age His Chinese experience made a deep impression, and his publications always gave large scale favorable attention to China. He gave some very strong support to Chiang Kai-shek in his battles against Mao Zedong.
The politically most influential returning missionary was Walter Judd Who served 10 years is a medical missionary in Fujian and According to biographer Yanli Gao:. In response to severe restrictions on Chinese immigration to the United States, the overseas Chinese living in the United States organized a boycott whereby people in China refuse to purchase American products.
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The project was organized by a reform organization based in the United States, Baohuang Hui. Unlike the reactionary Boxers, these reformers were modernizers. The Manchu government had supported the Boxers, but these reformers--of whom Sun Yat-sen was representative, opposed the government. The boycott was put into effect by merchants and students in south and central China. It made only a small economic impact, because China bought few American products apart from Standard Oil's kerosene. Washington was outraged and treated the boycott as a Boxer-like violent attack, and demanded the Peking government stop it or else.
President Theodore Roosevelt asked Congress for special funding for a naval expedition. Washington refused to consider softening the exclusion laws because it responded to deep-seated anti-Chinese prejudices that were widespread especially on the West Coast. It now began to denounce Chinese nationalism. Jane Larson argues the boycott, "marked the beginning of mass politics and modern nationalism in China. Never before had shared nationalistic aspirations mobilized Chinese across the world in political action, joining the cause of Chinese migrants with the fate of the Chinese nation.
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Mexico and Japan would follow Brazil, with Nigeria and Germany rounding out the top ten. Of course, no one knows for sure. Forecasting economics is even harder than forecasting population. US dollars are the basis of international dollars. Subscribe to Articles feed. Find out more about this and all of Joel's books.
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Subjects: Africa Asia China Economics. Featured Content View all subjects. Books Authored by Aaron Renn, The Urban State of Mind: Meditations on the City is the first Urbanophile e-book, featuring provocative essays on the key issues facing our cities, including innovation, talent attraction and brain drain, global soft power, sustainability, economic development, and localism.