The United States is already the global leader in 4G technology. To lead in 5G and reap the benefits of better and faster wireless connections, we must have a forward-looking, strategic spectrum policy. As we continue to innovate and our devices become better, faster, and more capable, the demand for spectrum—the frequencies in which invisible radio waves move data between devices and the fuel of our wireless ecosystem—will only grow.
Deploying 5G is only possible if we continue to make additional spectrum available and use it more efficiently. Last summer, President Trump held a summit exploring opportunities in emerging technology, including 5G.
4G Wireless and International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT) Advanced
And today, President Donald J. By developing a national strategy to meet the rising demand for spectrum, we accomplish three important goals:. America cannot risk lagging behind other countries. The Administration has taken concrete steps to promote United States wireless leadership through smart tax and infrastructure policy, streamlining regulations, and developing stronger cybersecurity protections. Third, we will improve our national security through technological advancements.
Our 21st century military must be equipped with 21st century technology to effectively secure the Nation. These methods will be sufficient for broadband transmission and packet switching.
Once the access method has been finalized the choice of modulation scheme is of equal importance and is influenced by various factors described below. Modulation involves coding of data onto the carrier frequency by varying one or more of its basic characteristics. Modulation should support the efficient use of spectrum. Modulation with lower peak to average power ratio PAPR should be selected. The type of radio network and the spectrum efficiency requirements often influence the choice of modulation scheme.
Symmetrical as well as asymmetrical operation is supported. In a symmetrical air interface, same bandwidth is occupied by both the downlink and uplink carrier waveforms.
Whereas the downlink carrier waveform and the uplink carrier waveform occupies different channel bandwidth in a non-symmetrical air interface. Duplex methods are independent of channel access technologies. Following the encoding scheme are the requirements for error control which are discussed below. For reliable communication, implementation of advanced forward error correction coding scheme should be considered.
A new radio interface technology will be introduced which will interoperate between heterogenous networks. Intelligent radio access as well as the use of software defined radio has been under consideration. The radio technology should operate in mutimode, mutiband and heterogeneous networks. Minimum requirements for the configuration of antenna are:. Initially scalable bandwidths from 5 to 20 MHz will be supported.
It will be extensible and support larger channel bandwidths as they become available. Efficient Spectrum sharing will be possible between different radio access technologies. Table 2 states the performance of a mobile device in an IMT Advanced system. While in low mobility a mobile device should get optimized performance where as a marginal degradation is expected during high mobility. Mobile devices should remain connected during high speeds.
It has also been estimated that by the year the spectrum requirements will increase to about low user demand MHz High user demand. Following candidate bands have been identified. Advantages and disadvantages of the candidate bands are described in Table 2. The table below Table 3 states the spectrum allocation that was discussed for various countries in one of the meetings. Handover can be defined as a change in channel of the ongoing connection in terms of time slot, spreading code, frequency, or combination of these while a call is in progress.
For a continuous always-on service IMT-Advanced systems shall provide handover methods to facilitate continuous service to mobile terminals that are moving. This enables mobile terminals to maintain connectivity when moving between cells, systems, frequencies, and IP Subnets.
What is Fourth Generation Wireless (4G)? - Definition from Techopedia
The handovers could be vertical inter technology or horizontal intra technology. A vertical handover is often between different technologies. A horizontal handover takes place within the same type of technology. A handover of a device between two cells of a mobile network is an example of a horizontal handover. Intra technology handover techniques are already in practice whereas inter technology handover faces many issues which need to be addressed such as service continuity, QoS, measurement reports, network discovery, network selection, security during handover, inter-technology handover initiation and control and power efficient network scanning.
Table 4 describes the performance requirements for mobility.
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For low mobility the perfomance should be optimized where as there should be minimal degradation during high mobility. For conservation of power due to the limited power profile of the mobile terminals, stringent power useage is discussed below. Since the IMT-Advanced systems provide a wide range of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unidirectional services, QoS is an important issue. The traffic will be prioritized based on the type of service and factors such as data rate, latency, packet error rate, jitter.
Following are the QoS requirements that will be supported:. Table 5 above describes the class of services in which the traffic will be catagorized to support delay sensitive applications.
Activities such has video, realtime streaming are categorized in streaming class which has the highest priority since these applications are delay sensitive where as the interactive class which includes applications such as gaming has higher priority than the conversational and background classes of services. IMT-Advanced systems will be required to protect its resources from attacks as well as misuse.
Protection from unauthorized access, denial of service as well as theft of service are just a few issues to name. Mutual authentication of base station as well as mobile station is required for data protection, integrity and privacy. Security aspects include:. IMT-Advanced is still an evolving standard and hence most of the technologies that are to be a part of this standard are yet to be finalized. The work on IMT-Advanced [Fig 2] started around the year where the vision, definition and requirements were charted out. Currently the standard is evolving to accommodate the spectrum allocation requirements as well as reaching out for new radio access technologies.
The IMT-Advanced system deployment is expected to be in place by the year and widely deployed by Since the IMT-Advanced vision was introduced in the telecommunication industry started work on IMT-Advanced and are developing technologies that meet this standards. All these technologies being similar and contending, their time to market will be a crucial element in the popular acceptance of any of the above mentioned technologies.
Use of MIMO with up to four antenna supports at mobile as well as base stations. Turbo code for efficient error detection is used. In terms of mobility optimized speed for low mobility and high performance for higher mobility is assured. Variable spectrum allocation from 1. Considerable amount of work has been put in to make this system less complex, affordable, bandwidth efficient and compatible for co-existence with other networks. Ultra Mobile Wideband is the world's first IP based mobile broadband solution that has already been published which supports data rates up to Mbps and low avearge latencies.
It is expected that UMB will be commercially available by mid UMB promises high data rate, seamless mobility as well as low latency at affordable rates.